Lung cancer is a disease that consists of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The main causes of any cancer include carcinogens (such as those in tobacco smoke), ionizing radiation, and viral infection. This exposure causes cumulative changes to the DNA in the tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs (the bronchial epithelium). As more tissue becomes damaged, eventually a cancer develops. You should know how to diagnose through the signs of lung cancer.
Smoking, particularly of cigarette, is by far the main contributor to lung cancer. Cigarette smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens, including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine and benzopyrene. Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue.
Passive smoking, the inhalation of smoke from another’s smoking, also has a possibility to get this disease. Recent investigation of side stream smoke suggests that it’s more dangerous than direct smoke inhalation.
2. Radon gas
Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn the decay product of uranium, found in the earth’s crust. The radiation decay products ionize genetic material causing mutations that sometimes turn cancerous. Radon exposure is the second major causes of lung cancer in the general population, after smoking.
Asbestos can cause a variety of lung disease, including lung cancer. There’s a synergistic effect between tobacco smoking and asbestos in the formation of lung cancer. Asbestos can also cause cancer of the pleura, called mesothelioma, which is different with lunng cancer.
Viruses are know to cause lung cancer in animals, and recent evidence suggests similar potential in humans. Implicated viruses include human papillomavirus, JC virus, etcetera. These viruses may affect the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, allowing uncontrolled cell division.
5. Particular Matter
Studies of the American Cancer Society cohort directly link the exposure to particulate matter with lung cancer. For example, if the concentration of particles in the air increases by only 1%, the risk of developing a lung cancer increases by 14%. Further, it has been established that particle size matters, as ultrafine particles penetrate further into the lungs.