Epilepsy is a brain disorder involving repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. Epilepsy in children have many causes.
For some patients the epileptic disorder is congenital, that is, the child is born with the predisposition to have epilepsy. In other patients the epileptic disorder is acquired, as a result of brain damage that occurred after birth.
The congenital epilepsies could be the result of the child having a gene that is responsible for the epileptic disorder; these are the genetic types of epilepsy. Alternatively, congenital epilepsy may be the result of factors that interfere with the development of the brain during gestation, resulting in brain malformations.
In acquired epileptic disorders, the damage might occur at the time of birth, for example the case of newborns that have oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery; or intracranial bleeding, as seen in some children born prematurely. Also, the brain damage may occur any time after birth. For example, epilepsy could be a complication of infections in the brain (meningitis, encephalitis), head injuries with brain damage, brain tumors, or intracranial bleeding.
There are also many other causes of epilepsy which may cause children. Most common causes of childhood seizure or apilepsy include:
1. High fever
2. Genetic causes
3. Head injury
4. Infection of the brain and its coverings
5. Lack of oxygen to the brain
6. Hydrocephalus (excess water in the brain cavities)
7. Disorder of brain development